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References and Clinical Citations

1. Simka M, Majewski E. The social and economic burden of venous leg ulcers: focus on the role of micronized purified flavanoid fraction adjuvant therapy. Am J Clin Dermatol, 2003; 4(8): 573-581

2. Vuerstaek JDD, Vainas T, Wuite J, Nelemans P, Neumann MHA, Veraart JCJM. State-of-art treatment of chronic leg ulcers: A randomized controlled trial comparing vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C.) with modern wound dressings. J Vasc Surg, 2006; 44(5): 1029-1037

3. www.webmd.com/hw/skin_and_beauty/tn8005.asp

4. Cornwall JV, Dore CJ, Lewis JD. Leg ulcers: epidemiology and aetiology. Br J Surg, 1986; 73: 693-696

5. Baker SR, Stacey MC, Jopp-McKay AG, Hoskin SE, Thompson PJ. Epidemiology of chronic venous ulcers. Br J Surg, 1991; 78: 864 -867

6. Baker SR, Stacey MC, Singh G, Hoskin SE, Thompson PJ. Aetiology of chronic leg ulcers. Eur J Vasc Surg, 1992; 6: 245-251

7. Callam MJ, Harper DR, Dale JJ, Ruckley CV. Chronic ulcer of the leg: clinical history. BMJ, 1987; 294: 1389-1391

8. Nelzen O, Bergqvist D, Lindhagen A, Hallbook T. Chronic leg ulcers: an underestimated problem in primary health care among elderly patients. J Epidemiol Community Health, 1991; 45: 184-187

9. Nelzen O, Bergqvist D, Lindhagen A. Leg ulcer etiology a cross sectional population study. J Vasc Surg, 1991; 14: 557-564

10. Nelzen O, Bergqvist D, Lindbagen A. Venous and non-venous leg ulcers: clinical history and appearance in a population study. Br J Surg, 1994; 81: 182-187

11. Callam MT, Ruckley CV, Harper DR, Dale JJ. Chronic ulceration of the leg: extent of the problem and provision of care. BMJ, 1985; 290: 1855-1866

12. Nelson EA, Cullum N, Jones J. Venous leg ulcers. Clin Evid, 2006; 2607-2626

13. Bergan JJ, Schmid Schönbein WG, Coleridge Smid PD, Nicolaiders AN, Boisseau MR, Eklof, B. Chronic Venous Disease, NEJM, 2006; 355(5): 488-498

14. Nicolaides AN. Investigation of chronic venous insufficiency: A consensus statement (France, March 5-9, 1997). Circulation, 2000; 102: E126-E163

15. SIGN Publication nr. 26: The Care of Patients with Chronic Leg Ulcer - A National Clinical guideline. SIGN = Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. July 1998.
www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign26.pdf (PDF)

16. De Araujo T, Valencia I, Federman DG, Kirsner RS. Managing the patient with venous ulcers. Ann Intern Med, 2003; 138: 326-334

17. Clarke-Moloney M, O'Brien JF, Grace PA, Burke PE. Health-related quality of life during four-layer compression bandaging for venous ulcer disease: a randomised controlled trial. Ir J Med Sci, 2005; 174: 21-25

18. Mekkes JR, Loots MA, van der Wal AC, Bos JD. Causes, investigation and treatment of leg ulceration. Br J Dermatol, 2003; 148: 388- 401

19. Schultz GS, Sibbald RG, Falanga V, Ayello EA, Dowsett C., Harding K, Romanelli M, Stacey MC, Téot L, Vanscheidt W. Wound bed preparation: a systematic approach to wound management. Wound Repair Regen, 2003; 11 Suppl 1: S1-S28

20. Brem H, Kirsner RS, Falanga V. Protocol for the successful treatment of venous ulcers. Am J Surg, 2004; 188: 1-8

21. Bradley M, Cullum N, Nelson EA, Petticrew M, Sheldon T, Torgerson D. Systematic reviews of wound care management: (2). Dressings and topical agents used in the healing of chronic wounds. Health Technol Assess, 1999; 3: 1-35

22. Howell-Jones RS, Wilson MJ, Hill KE, Howard AJ, Price PE, Thomas DW. A review of the microbiology, antibiotic usage and resistance in chronic skin wounds. J Antimicrob Chemother, 2005; 55: 143-149

23. Jones JE, Nelson EA. Skin grafting for venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2005; CD001737

24. Falanga V, Margolis D, Alvarez O, Auletta M, Maggiacomo F, Altman M, Jensen J, Sabolinski M, Hardin-Young J. Rapid healing of venous ulcers and lack of clinical rejection with an allogeneic cultured human skin equivalent. Human Skin Equivalent Investigators Group. Arch Dermatol, 1998; 134: 293- 300

25. www.rcn.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/107940/003020.pdf (PDF)

26. Kantor J, Margolis DJ. A multicentre study of percentage change in venous leg ulcer area as a prognostic index of healing at 24 weeks. Br J Dermatol, 2000; 142(5): 960-964

27. Dale JJ, Callam MJ, Ruckley CV, Harper DR, Berry PN. Chronic ulcers of the leg: a study of prevalence in a Scottish community. Health Bul, 1983; 41: 310-314

28. Evans CJ, Fowkes FGR, Ruckley CV, Lee AJ. Prevalence of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency in men and women in the general population: Edinburgh Vein Study. J Epidemiol Community Health, 1999; 53: 149-153

29. Kurz X, Kahn SR, Abenhaim L, et al. Chronic venous disorders of the leg: epidemiology, outcomes, diagnosis and management: summary of an evidence-based report of the VEINES task force. Int Angiol, 1999; 18: 83-102

30. Nelson EA, Cullum N, Jones J. Venous leg ulcers. Clin Evid, 2004: 2774-2792

31. Ragnarson Tennvall G. Hjelmgren J. Annual costs of treatment for venous leg ulcers in Sweden and the United Kingdom. Wound Rep & Reg, 2005; 13: 13-18

32. Saxena V, Hwang CW, Huang S, Eichbaum Q, Ingber D, Orgill DP. Vacuum-assisted closure: microdeformations of wounds and cell proliferation. Plast Reconstr Surg, 2004; 114(5): 1086-1096

33. Simka M, Majewski E. The social and economic burden of venous leg ulcers: focus on the role of micronized purified flavanoid fraction adjuvant therapy. Am J Clin Dermatol, 2003; 4(8): 573-581

34. Currency Conversion via: www.ex.com/ucc/convert.cgi

35. Margolis DJ, Bilker W, Santanna J, Baumgarten M. Venous Leg Ulcer: Incidence and Prevalence in the Elderly. J Am Acad Dermatol, 2002; 46(3): 381-386

36. Palfreyman S. Assessing the impact of venous ulceration on quality of life. Nurs Times, 2008: 104(41): 34-37

37. Posnett J, Gottrup F, Lundgren H, Saal G. The resource impact of wounds on health-care providers in Europe. JWC, 2009; 18(4): 154-161

38. Morykwas, M.J., Argenta, L.C., Shelton-Brown, E.I. and McGuirt, W. Ann Plast Surg , Vol 38 (6): 553–562. 1997

39. Saxena V, Hwang CW, Huang S, Eichbaum Q, Ingber D, Orgill DP. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004 Oct; 114(5): 1086–96; discussion 1097–8

40. Greene, A.K., Puder, M., Roy, R., Arsenault, D., Kwei, S., Moses, M.A., and Orgill, D.P. Ann Plast Surg 56 (4), 418–422. 2006

41. Morykwas, M.J., Faler, B.J., Pearce, D.J., and Argenta, L.C. Ann Plast Surg 47 (5), 547–551. 2001

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